Intaglio is also a branch of gravure printing. This is an enhancement on copper engravings (15th century). The steel graving stencils are made by hand by a skilled artist etcher. Currently, this technique is used to print banknotes and a number of stamps.
Rotogravure is a branch of gravure printing technique. The printing form in this technique is a cylinder with an engraved image. The graving process requires indentations made with diamond needles or via chemical etching. These indentations collect printing dye, which is then transferred to paper. This technique is most often used in high-volume printing, especially in color magazines.
Offset is a flat printing technique. Its history is related to the development of lithography (18th/19th century). Offset printing is a technique which transfers image from the printing form to a rubber shaft, and then to paper.